Quantum Teleportation is a futuristic technology and still lies in Science-Fiction movies. It can be defined as quantum information (e.g. the exact state of an atom or photon) can be transmitted (exactly, in principle) from one location to another. Quantum Teleportation technology uses principles of Quantum Mechanics to deliver huge processing power of information. Through this post, we will analyze, how Quantum Teleportation is shaping our future.
What is a Quantum Computer and Teleportation?
Quantum physics describes the behavior of atoms and fundamental particles, like Electrons and Protons. So, a quantum computer operates by controlling the conduct of these particles and it completely contrasts from our regular computers. Therefore, a Quantum Computer is a powerful version of our current computers.
You cannot make a light bulb by making better and better candles. A light bulb is a divergent technology, based on deeper scientific comprehension. Similarly, a Quantum Computer is an up to the minute of the device, based on the science of quantum physics, and just like a light bulb transformed society, quantum computers have the perspective to affect so many aspects of our lives, including our security needs, our health care, and even the internet. So the companies all around the world are working to build these devices.
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Let’s take a look at a coin game. The game is played between “Juan and Computer”. The computer can make moves like a human player. It starts with a coin presenting heads and the computer will play first. At first, the computer is asked if he wants to flip a coin or not. When the coin flips, Juan is unaware of the outcome. Next Juan is asked to flip a coin or not, and the computer does not know the results.
Finally, the computer plays fresh and can flip the coin or not. After these three rounds, the coin is revealed, if its a head computer wins, if its tails, Jaun wins. It’s a pretty simple game and if everybody plays honestly, and the coin is fair, then Juan has a 50% chance of winning this game.
IBM has built a working quantum computer. Now when Juan plays the same game on a quantum computer, the percent calculated for which computer won was 97%. Unfortunately, Juan didn’t do very well. The quantum computer won almost every game. It lost a few only because of operational errors in the computer.
So How Did it Achieve this Amazing Winning Streak?
It seems like appear or cheating, but actually, it’s just Quantum Physics inoperative. Here’s how it works. A regular computer simulates heads or tails of a coin as a bit, 0 or 1, or a current flipping on and off inside your computer chip. A quantum computer is completely different as it works on the principle of a quantum bit that has a supplemental fluid, nonbinary identity. It can exist in a superposition, or a combination of 0 and 1, with some probability of being 0 and some probability of being 1. In other words, its identity is on the spectrum.
For example, it could have a 70% of being zero and a 30% chance of being one or 80-20 or 60-40. The possibilities are endless. The key idea here is that we have to give up on exact values of 0 and 1 and enable some uncertainty. So during the game, the quantum computer creates this fluid combination of heads and tails, 0 and 1. So, no matter what the player does, flip or no flip, the superposition remains intact. It’s kind of like stirring a mixture of two fluids. Whether or not you stir, the fluids still remain in a mix. But in its final move, the quantum computer can unmix the zero and one, perfectly recovering heads so that Juan lose every time.
Regular coins do not exist in combinations of heads and tails. We do not experience this fluid quantum reality in our day to day lives. But even though we don’t experience quantum strangeness, we can see its very real effect in action. The Quantum computer won because it harnessed superposition and uncertainty, and these quantum properties are powerful, not just to win coin games but also to build future quantum technologies.
Let see a few examples where Quantum Teleportation is helping us
1. Creation of Private keys
First of all, Quantum Uncertainty helps in generating private keys for encrypting messages sent from one location to another. This is because hackers or third-party could not copy the private key perfectly. They would have to break the law of Quantum Physics to hack the key. So, Banks and other institutions worldwide are testing this kind of unbreakable encryption. Today, we use more than 19 billion connected devices globally. Just imagine the impact quantum encryption could have in the coming years.
2. Transforming Healthcare
Secondly, quantum technologies could also transform healthcare and medicine. For example, the design and analysis of the molecule for drug development is a challenging problem today. That’s because exactly describing and calculating all of the quantum properties of all the atoms in the molecule is a computationally difficult task, even for our supercomputers.
But a quantum computer could do better because it operators using the same quantum properties as the molecule is trying to simulate. So Future large scale quantum simulation for drug development could perhaps lead to treatments for diseases like Alzheimer’s, which affect thousands of lives.
3. Teleportation of Information
Thirdly, and one of the most interesting application is Quantum Teleportation of information from one location to another without physically transmitting the information. Sounds like Sci-fi, but it is possible. These fluids identities the quantum particles which get entangled across space and time. This happens in such a way that when you change something about one particle, it can impact the other and that creates a channel for teleportation.
We don’t have such a network as yet, but some people are is still working with the possibilities, by simulating a quantum network on a quantum computer. They have designed and implemented some engrossing new protocols such as teleportation among different users in the network, efficient data transmission, and even secure voting.